- Canonical passives
- a papukQu minaq tiper
My Grandma ACT.make a plaited mat
“My Grandma make a plaited mat
- Ø tiper Ta pinaq isiq papuqQu
A plaited PASSIVE-made by my grandma
“a plaited mat was made by my grandma”.
- tiper ta pinaq na
a plaited mat PASS-made – 3SG
“A plaited mat was made by her”.
- Inaq kelaq nasik
“Mother ACT-Cook rice”
Mother Cook rice
- Nasiq ta kelaq siq inak
Rice PASS-cook by mother
Rice was cooked by mother
- Nasiq ta kelaq na
Rice PASS – Cook – 3SG
“Rice was cooked by her”
- Nur dait kepeng
Nur (SG=Second singular person) ACT-find money
“Nur find money”
- Kepeng ta dait isiq Nur
Money PASS-found by Nur
“Money was found by Nur”
- Kepeng ta dait na
Money PASS-found by her
“Money was found by her”
Conclusion è In my mother tongue (sasak language of Eastern lombok) canonical passives usually marked on the verb with te-prefixs and it is followed by isiq or siq (Isiq and siq are same in meaning, it is only distinguish in mentioning, I don’t know why they different, may be isiq used in formal and siq used in informal situation). These passive form can be postclitized with –na after verb. Postclitic –na is clearly said, it is sound like prefixs and pronoun on verb. however it’s not both of them. In central and western Lombok (Sasak) Postclitic –na unclearly called. For instance ta daitn (Found by her).
- Inverted Passives
- Amaq rari molong ‘tongkol’ ßtongkol ta polong isiq amaq rari (tuna fish was sliced by uncle).
Uncle ACT-slice tuna fish
“Tuna fish”, uncle sliced
- Tuan guru mecat songkok puteq na ß songkok puteq ta pecat siq tuan guru
Moeslim Leader detach white hat-3SG-Possesive Pronoun.
His white hat, moeslim leader detach.
- Ye nyedaq pager ino ß pager ino ta sedaq siq ye (those fence was broken by her)
3SG ACT-broke fence those-DEF
Those fence, she broken.
Conclusion è in my opinion inverted passive in sasak language marked with verb alteration, like molong become polong, mecat to pecat, nyedaq become sedaq, etc.
- Accidental passive
- Gerigik imangku keselit (read:kselit) siq lawang
Adj. Pronoun-My Finger PASS-Oppressed by door
‘my finger was oppressed by door.
- Inangku kesetrum siq listrik
My mother PASS-Stang by eletric
‘my mother was stang by electric’.
- Bukungku kerentengan *(kemadeq’an) leq balen siti.
My book PASS-left at siti’s house
‘my book was letf at siti’s house.
*note : Kerentengan used in east lombok and kemadeq’an used in central and west Lombok.
Conclusion à after I analyzed these sentences, I found that Accidental Passives in Lombok language occur with verb change and marked with ke- affix followed with adverb. The verb change are nyelit become keselit, setrum become kesetrum, but kerentangan is original word (there is no alteration). So, not all of the verb are changed on Accidental passives.
- Adversative Passive.
- Balen adi kemalingan malen (Accidental Passive).
Adi’s house PASS-stole Last night-adverb.
Adi’s House was stolen last night.
ü Leq balen Adi wah na kemalingan malen (Adversative passive)
Adv. Adi’s House PASS-Robbing at Adi’s House last night.
At Adi’s house Robbing was happened last night.
- Amaq ino *kecantolan siq anaqna
Father PASS-imitated by POSS-his son
“Father was imitated by his son”.
(*kecantolan means that an imitation of behaviour and characteristic, used to imagine someone who has bad habit).
ü Leq amaq ino wah na kecantolan siq anaqna (Adversative Passive)
PASS-imitated by his father those son.
In those father was imitated by his son.
è From two sentences I can conclude that adversative passive occur with add an adverb indicated with Leq and no change with the verb.
EXAMPLES OF PASSIVES PROPERTIES ON MY MOTHER TONGUE
WAWAN HARDIANSYAH ( E1D 110 019 )
Class A Reg. Sore
FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION